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Aerodynamic effects of tyre deformation

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The aerodynamics on a Formula One car are refined to the nth degree, with engineers chasing the smallest gains to trim an extra hundredth of a second off lap times. As a result, no stone is left unturned in the quest for improvements. Being open-wheeled vehicles, the tyres of a Formula One car play a major role in its aero performance and, as such, understanding their impact here is an important part of optimising the car’s overall aero package. Tyres are dynamic entities though, so...

Regulations and CFD development part 2

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In my previous article on this subject I examined whether the Formula One regulations still make it possible to be creative with simulation methodology. In this article I want look at what those regulations implicitly prohibit, focusing predominantly on thermal applications.  The option to couple solvers is not limited to structural solvers. The new set of technical regulations in Formula One has put greater emphasis on cooling, and in turn on understanding heat transfer. This is an...

Are regulations stifling CFD development in Formula One?

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It has long been debated, and to an extent accepted, that the regulations have stifled creativity of design in Formula One, but is it now possible that this has spread to creativity in simulation methodology? The long and the short of it is yes, but the questions remain: is it possible to be creative within the regulations, and what do the current regulations implicitly prohibit? The regulations impose a limit on the combined use of CFD and wind tunnel time must fall below a limit line....

Restrictions on aerodynamic testing

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Aerodynamic resource restrictions in Formula One were introduced in 2009 as a means to limit a team’s expenditure on aerodynamics. Large investments were being made in full-scale wind tunnels, computational clusters and on-track testing – investment that was getting out of control. To prevent an ‘arms race’, running full-size cars in a wind tunnel (WT), and track testing, were severely restricted. In addition, limits were placed on a team’s wind tunnel and CFD...

Managing brake cooling flows

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Under braking, the friction of the brake pads against the disc transfers the kinetic energy of the car into heat, which passes through the brake disc, pads and caliper. Unless this energy can be removed from these components then eventually they will fail, and there are three main mechanisms through which this heat can be dispersed – convection, conduction and radiation. By far the most efficient method of heat transfer from the brakes is through convection. This is achieved by blowing...