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Why studs have a coarse thread at the 'metal end'

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When we look at bespoke engine studs, which are generally designed in such a way that engineering is given far more thought than cost, many of them will have a larger diameter and coarser thread at the 'metal end' - the end installed in the casting. Studs for mass production very often carry the same thread at both ends, or have a continuous thread over the whole length of the fastener. Have you ever wondered why this is so? It is quite often the case that studs are installed into a...

Composite fasteners, part 2

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In the previous article on fasteners, we looked at a very clever design of threaded fastener that used a composite shank with the threaded portions of the component still produced in high-strength metallic materials. Not only do these fasteners use a polymer-matrix composite shank but, being made of multiple parts, they are, in the broader sense of the definition, a composite component. A European company has developed a new form of composite fastener that is a pure polymer-matrix...

Composite fasteners

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In a recent article, the subject of using fasteners for composite components was discussed. The number of components for which composites are considered is increasing considerably, and in some race series their use is limited by regulations. There are many areas in a Formula One engine, for example, where composites are expressly forbidden, but in production-based series, people are free to use composite components much more freely and so they have developed techniques to make their use...

Fatigue-resistant threadforms

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When we design a fastener, or select one for use, there are a number of points to consider. Not least among these is whether the fastener will last for the life of the engine, or certainly between planned services. Where a fastener is cyclically loaded, we need to consider the effects of fatigue, and in this regard we need to pay special attention to design features. Where a bespoke engine is concerned, or where we are looking to increase markedly the output of an existing engine, it is...

Composite Materials

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The use of composite materials in racecars is not new; nor does it represent a particular novelty for race engines. The strength, stiffness and low density make them ideal for many components, both structural and decorative. It is now pretty rare to find a race engine airbox, certainly on 'formula' cars, made from anything other than carbon-fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. It has also been used to good effect for plenums on turbocharged engines, on structural covers for...